کالج جاذبه های گردشگری ایران زمین - مسجد گوهرشاد مشهد مقدس/Goharshad mosque

کالج جاذبه های گردشگری ایران زمین

دانشکده جاذبه های گردشگری ایران زمین

مسجد گوهرشاد مشهد مقدس/Goharshad mosque

مسجد گوهر شاد مشهد.

  Goohar shad mosque of Mashhaed

  The following article  deal with  Gooharshad  mosque . The construction  of  the  mosque  was started  in 1409 C.E . and it took  12 years  to be  over. According  to sir  Percy  Syke , diplomat and  historian  , it is  the noblest  mosque in  the central Asia.

  This Islamic  architecture  complex  which  is distinctive  in its beauty  and still stands  firm  after 6  centuries , hosts millions  of p[lgrims  every year .  The enterance  porch  is a  continiuation  of the  well-known '' one archway  set inside  another''  style  that developed   both in Samarghand  and  in the  hands of the  architects of Shiraz. This portal  possesses a  number  of raised  and  recessed  areas  that give  it  extra   depth  and distinction .The minarets  next  to the enterance  porch  are  slightly  thicker than  the usual  Saljuke  and  Ilkhanid  examples  and  stretch  upwards  from  the surface  of  their  marble  base  platform.A large potion  of the  motifs  includes  a wide selection  of  geometric  patterns  carefully  combined  with  arabesques and  floral  designs. The  dome is  shaped  in such a way  so  as  to be seen from  a distance  of  one thousand feet. The decorations are  carefully  combined  into a rich  combination   that is free of both  dullness  and  confusing  contrast . This is one of the aesthetic  features  of the  building and has  been  achieved  through  the  careful  combination  of floral  arabesques  motifs  and a  variety  of  geometric  designs  along with  the hollowed  and raised  areas  of  the  surrounding  ravaghs  and the open  passageways  between  them.

 An inscription ,  written by Baysonghor Mirza  of Timurid  Dynasty   who  was  one  of the famouse calligraphers of his time , still remains on the margins  of the enterance  of the veranda. The Sahebozzaman pulpit  is located  in the cellar  of the mosque. The pulpit  has  been  made  in 1243  lunar  hejrea of walnut  wood  and decorated  with  carvings. No nail or  iron is used in it.

   The mosques  comprehensive  deed  of endowment   was written in 1425.  The  building of the mosque  has been  renovated  several  times  like  the  time  of  Shah Abbas  of Safavid dynasty  when Mashhad  was completely  freed from  under  the yoke  of Uzbek  sovereignty.  On the entablature of the  earthquake  of Mashhad  also  caused  a major  damage  to  the mosque  which  was also  renovated  by Safavid  kings. The  mosque was also  renovated  in Qajar  era too,  but the building  still  retains  its  art  and  historical  identity  and value.

  The double layerd  dome  of the  mosque  was  severly  damaged  in 1911  in bombings by Russian troops.

 Goharsgad  mosque  is located  in the  architectural  complex  of Imam  Reza  Shrine  in Mashhad . It is bound  to Dar al – Hafez  to the north , to Qods  courtyard  to the  south , to Imam  cxourtyard  to the west  and to sheikh Bahayii  to the east.

    It was  built upon  the  orders  of   Goharshad  , the wife  of Shahrokh  of the Timurid  Dynasty  in 1418, CE and by  the accomplished  architect  Ghavamoddin   shirazi . Its foundation  is made of brick  and  plaster  and is one of  the most important  historical monuments  of Iran  due to its  structural  charactristics  and having  rich  tile and scripture  decoration .

   The mosque has an area of 4910 sq m . It has a big  azure  dome , 4 verandas ,  a courtyard  and 7  big bedchambers .

   On the  2  sides  of te cella,  there are 2 beautiful  minarets , each with  a  height  of 40  m . At the end  of the  cella ,  there is a big  altar  with  a stone  dado  and a mosaic  faience  shell.

   A cella   is  the  inner chamber  of a  temple  in classical architecture  , or a shop facing  the  street  in domestic  Roman  architecture.

  The northern  veranda of  Goharshad  Mosque  or Darolsiyadat , which  has  the  shallowest  veranda  measuring 18>< 12  m , was constructed  with  respect to  the  inscription   on the portal   in 1087 lunar  hejrii  during the time of   Suleymun  Shah  of Safavid dynasty.

   The eastern  veranda measuring  7><  1  meters  and the western one  measuring 1>< 3  have rich tile work decorations. The  mosque has  a broad  courtyard  measuring 56><51 sqm  which has been restricted by verandas and colonnades .

   The mosaic  faience  of the  courtyard   with a  height  0f 29.1m  is covered   by dark   stone  and  the rest  of the  surface is decorated  with  tiles  of flora ,  artistic  and  arabesques  designs. The entire   surface   of these  minarets ,  the walls  and  the surrounding  colonnades  are  decorated  with fine  mosaic  and glazed   tiles  produced  in  a variety  of  colors  including  ultramarine, turquoise  , white , clear  green ,  yellow , light  yellow and ebony.

   The main  dome of  the building  constitue  2 dissociated  onion –like  layers  with short  shaft  and a hatchway  diameter  of 15  m , circumference of 63  and thickness  of 5.2 m . The convex  part of the dome's shell  is decorated  with  an  inscription   in kufic  script.

  The  mosque  has a public library   which  holds  34650   vilumes  of books. The old  library  was  located   on the   eastern side   of Imam  Khomini   courtyard   but due to   an increase   in number   of books and users ,  the new  building of  the library  named   central  library  was built   predicting  5 milion vilumes  of books  and  was inaugurated  in 1995.

   The central  library  with a capacity  of one million volumes  holds  at present  more  than  half  a  million   books in 43 prevalent  language  of the  world, 32000  of these  books are  handwritten , 1000  volumes  are  illustrated  copies  and th remaining  are printed .

  From among  the  printed books  , 35000 are  in foreign  languages . Also  there are  about 27000   micrrofilm  rolls  from  valuable  handwritten  copies   of this library  and  other  libraries  inside  and outside  the country   including   Spain.

   It is to be mentioned  that  the museum  building located   on the eastern  side of Imam  Khomeyni  courtyard. Its  artifacts  dates  back   to the  6th  century  Hejri. The  museum  is  regarded one of the  museum of Iran. Among  unique  artifacts  of the the museum  is the grave  stone  of Imam Reza  which has been  engraved  in  projected  Kufic script in 516  lunar Hejri. Also  a number  of as  Sanjari  tile  of the  6th  century  are  kept   in the museum.

  The museum  of the   holy shrine  has  hundreds of thousands   of visitors   every   year  due to its  attachments   to imam  Reza . A collection  of carpets  , small  carpets  and gold woven  works   which were woven  for Imam Reza's  grave  cover  and are  unique  in their  kind  are kept  at  this  museum . The  gold-woven  works   date back  to 11th, 12th and 13th  centuries.

  Among precious  artifacts  of this  museum  are  the  inscriptions written  by Ali Reza  Abbasi in hand writing.

  Goharshad  was a wife  of Shah Rukh , the emperor of Timurid  Dynasty of Heart. She was  the  daughter  of Giath ud-din Tarkhan , an important and  influential  noble  during  Timures reign.

  Along  with  her  brothers  who  were  administrators at  the  Timurid   court  in Heart , Goharshad  played a  very  important   role  in the early  Timurid   history. In 1405  she  moved  the  Timurid capital  from  Samarkand to Heart.

  Under  her patronage , the Persian  language  and Persian culture  were  elevated   to a  main  element  of the Timurid  dynasty.

   She  and her  husband  led a  cultural  renaissance  by their  lavish  patronage   of the arts,  attracting  to their  court  artists , architects  and philosophers  and  poets  acknowledged  today among  the  world's  most  illustrious , including  the poet Jami. Many exquisite  examples  of Timurid  architecture  remain  in Heart today.

  After the death  of her  husband  in 1447  Goharshad  maneuvered her  favorite  grandson  to the thron. For ten years  she became  the  de facto  ruler  of  an empire  stretching  from  theTigris  to  the  borders of China . When she  was  well  past 80 , she was executed  on July 19/ 1457 on the order of Sultan  Abusaid.

  Source: Tehran Times





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